Egypt has ratified the following documents:
  • African (Banjul) Charter on Human and People's Rights
  • Arab Charter on Human Rights
  • Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
  • Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child
  • International Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
  • International Covenant Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
The following documents further define the obligations of Egypt:
  • Beijing +5: Further Actions and Initiatives to Implement the Beijing Platform for Action
  • Beijing Platform for Action
  • Cairo Programme of Action
  • UN Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) Declaration of Commitment
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The documents listed above require Egypt to protect and promote the following rights:

Right to development
Right to education
Right to equal protection of the law
Right to freedom from inhuman or degrading treatment
Right to highest attainable standard of physical and mental health
Right to housing
Right to just and favorable work conditions
Right to liberty and security of the person
Right to life and survival
Right to marry and found a family
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of age
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability (i.e. HIV positive)
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of marital status
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of race and ethnicity
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of sex and gender
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation
Right to private and family life
Right to receive and impart information
Right to the benefits of scientific progress

Constitutional Protection of Rights

The Constitution of Egypt can be viewed at

The Constitution of Egypt is an important tool for the protection and promotion of human rights.

The Constitution enables Egypt to translate international agreements into domestic law, and obliges all branches of government to respect and ensure the rights it enunciates.

The Constitution provides for the protection of the following rights, among others. This empowers individuals in making reproductive health decisions, and helps create the economic and social conditions conducive to good sexual and reproductive health.

Right to consent to medical or scientific experiment (art. 43)
Right to education (art. 18)
Right to the equal protection of the laws (art. 40)
Right to freedom of association (art. 55)
Right to freedom of expression (art. 47)
Right to freedom from discrimination on the grounds of race (art. 40)
Right to inherit property (art. 34)
Right to own property (art. 34)
Right to privacy (art. 45)
Right to social security (art. 17)
Right to seek and obtain compensation for violations of rights (art. 57)
Right to work (art. 13)

The Constitution includes other provisions that promote and protect rights relevant for good sexual and reproductive health.

The Constitution specifically obliges Egypt:

  • to guarantee social and health services (art. 16)
  • to organize the economy in order to increase the standard of living (art. 23)
  • to protect the family (art. 9)
  • to protect motherhood and childhood, and to ensure appropriate development conditions for the youth (art. 10)
  • to empower women by helping them coordinate professional and family life. The Constitution requires Egypt to consider women equal to men "in the fields of political, social, cultural and economic life without violation of the rules of Islamic jurisprudence" (art. 11)
  • to give priority in work opportunities to women and children who lost a spouse or a parent to the war (art. 15)