Vietnam has ratified the following documents:
The following documents further define the obligations of Vietnam:
The documents listed above require Vietnam to protect and promote the following rights:
- Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
- Convention on the Rights of the Child
- International Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
- International Covenant Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Right to development
Right to education
Right to equal protection of the law
Right to highest attainable standard of physical and mental health
Right to housing
Right to just and favorable work conditions
Right to liberty and security of the person
Right to life and survival
Right to marry and found a family
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of age
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability (i.e. HIV positive)
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of marital status
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of race and ethnicity
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of sex and gender
Right to non-discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation
Right to private and family life
Right to receive and impart information
Right to the benefits of scientific progress
Constitutional Protection of Rights
The Constitution of Vietnam can be viewed at http://www.vietnamembassy-usa.org/learn_about_vietnam/politics/constitution/
The Constitution of Vietnam is an important tool for the protection and promotion of human rights.
The Constitution enables Vietnam to translate international agreements into domestic law, and obliges all branches of government to respect and ensure the rights it enunciates.
The Constitution provides for the protection of the following rights, among others. This empowers individuals in making reproductive health decisions, and helps create the economic and social conditions conducive to good sexual and reproductive health.
Right to dignity (art. 71)
Right to education (art. 59)
Right to the equal protection of the law (art. 52)
Right to gender equality (art. 63)
Right to freedom of association (art. 69)
Right to freedom of enterprise (art. 57)
Right to freedom of expression (art. 69)
Right to freedom of movement (art. 68)
Right to freedom from torture, harassment and coercion (art. 71)
Right to health (art. 61)
Right to inherit (art. 58)
Right to life (art. 71)
Right to own private property (art. 58)
Right to participate in the affairs of government (art. 53)
Right to receive information (art. 69)
Right to seek and obtain remedies for violations of rights (art. 74)
Right to work (art. 55)
The Constitution includes other provisions that promote and protect rights relevant for good sexual and reproductive health.
The Constitution obliges Vietnam to establish a system of hospital fees (art. 61), as well as a system for exemptions from and reductions of such fees.
The Constitution requires Vietnam to "enact regulations on compulsory treatment of drug addiction and treatment of dangerous social diseases" (art. 61).
The Constitution specifically upholds the rights of women (art. 63). In particular:
- It prohibits acts that are discriminatory or degrading to women (art. 63).
- It provides for women's right to equal pay for equal work (art. 63).
- It requires the establishment of a maternity regime for working women, and asserts their right to paid maternity leave (art. 63).
- It obliges Vietnam to help women conciliate work and family (art. 63).
- While this applies to both spouses, it is particularly significant for women that the Constitution provide for the right to freely consent to marriage and for the right to equality within marriage (art. 64).
The Constitution requires Vietnam to provide protection to the family (art. 64), and specifically to children (art. 65).
The Constitution also mandates Vietnam to encourage the development of family economy (art. 21).