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Political, Social, Cultural and Economic Context
People and Places
  Policy Characteristics Analysis Matrix
  Planning and Finance Checklist
  Human Rights Approach
  Policy Environment Score (PES)
  Expanded Adolescent Reproductive Health (ARH) PES module
  Maternal and Neonatal Program Effort Index (MNPI)
  Gender Analysis
  Networking for Policy Change: An Advocacy Training Manual
(see section 2.2 and 2.3)
  Focus Project Youth Friendly RHS section
  Strategic Pathway to Reproductive Health Commodity Security (SPARCHS)
  Checklist for Determining Priority Operational Barriers to be Addressed   
  What Works series of modules
Price Tag
Programs and Performance
Gender Lens
Human Rights Lens
Adolescent Lens
Policy Circle Paper

What is the Spectrum?

SPECTRUM is a system comprising of different computer models in a unified, user-friendly Windows-based package. The models comprising SPECTRUM are used to determine the future consequences of today’s population policies and programs. In 2003, the models included in the SPECTRUM system are: DemProj, FamPlan, Ben-Cost, NewGen, AIM, PMTCT, and RAPID,

  • DemProj: Demography.
    DemProj projects the population for a country or region by age and sex, based on assumptions about fertility, mortality, and migration. A full set of demographic indicators can be displayed for up to 50 years into the future. Urban and rural projections can also be prepared. A companion model, EasyProj, allows the user to make a population projection using estimates produced by the Population Division of the United Nations.

  • FamPlan: Family Planning.
    FamPlan projects family planning requirements to reach national or consumer goals of contraceptive practice or desired fertility. The program uses assumptions about the proximate determinants of fertility and the characteristics of the family planning program (e.g., method mix, source mix, discontinuation rates) to calculate numbers of users and acceptors of different methods by source. Various strategies can be simulated as a way to evaluate alternative methods of achieving program goals.

  • BenCost: Financial benefits and costs of family planning programs.
    Older versions of the benefit-cost analysis model were named Benefit-Cost. This model compares the monetary cost of family planning programs to the monetary benefits in terms of reduced levels of social services required at lower levels of fertility. Benefits are defined as savings in government expenses on social services. BenCost is a module that allows planners to add the cost of health, education, and other social services to population projections created with the DemProj and FamPlan modules. BenCost can be used to study the long-term economic costs and benefits to society resulting from changes in family planning programs.

  • AIM: AIDS Impact Model.
    AIM projects the consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including the number of people living with HIV/AIDS, new infections, and AIDS deaths by age and sex, as well as new cases of tuberculosis and AIDS orphans. AIM is used by UNAIDS to make the national and regional estimates it releases every two years.

  • PMTCT: Prevention of Maternal-to-Child Transmission.
    PMTCT evaluates the costs and benefits of intervention programs to reduce transmission of HIV from mother to child. Three different sets of interventions are included in the model: drug treatment (seven possible options); type of delivery (vaginal or Cesarean section); and type of infant feeding (formula, breastfeeding, or mixed). Outputs include a benefit-cost ratio as well as cost-effectiveness measures such as cost per HIV infection averted.

  • NewGen: Reproductive health for adolescents.
    NewGen projects the characteristics of the adolescent population in terms of such indicators as school enrollment, sexual activity, pregnancy rates, prevalence of HIV and STIs, and marriage rates. The linkages among these indicators and the effects of policy changes can be examined.

  • RAPID: Resources for the Awareness of Population Impacts on Development.
    RAPID projects the social and economic consequences of high fertility and rapid population growth for such sectors as labor, education, health, urbanization, and agriculture. This program is used to raise policymakers' awareness of the importance of fertility and population growth as factors in social and economic development.

To install Spectrum on your computer click here

For the Spectrum Manuals click below on those that you would like to view. Manuals in other languages are available on the Futures Group Website.

Visit the Futures Group Website for more information on Spectrum